​​What are the uses of ketamine?

​​What are the uses of ketamine?

Last updated SUN 09 DEC 2018
 Ketamine is a medication that is used to induce loss of consciousness, or anesthesia. It can produce relaxation and relieve pain in humans and animals.

It is a class III scheduled drug and is approved for use in hospitals and other medical settings as an anesthetic.

However, it is also a commonly abused “recreational” drug, due to its hallucinogenic, tranquilizing and dissociative effects.

Controversy has arisen about using ketamine “off-label” to treat depression. Off-label uses of drugs are uses that are not approved by the the United States, (U.S.) Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

Ketamine is safe to use in controled, medical practice, but it has abuse potential. Used outside the approved limits, its adverse mental and physical health effects can be hazardous. Prolonged use can lead to tolerance and psychological addiction.

Fast facts on ketamine:Here are some key points about ketamine. More detail is in the main article.

  • Ketamine is similar in structure to phencyclidine (PCP), and it causes a trance-like state and a sense of disconnection from the environment.
  • It is the most widely used anesthetic in veterinary medicine and is used for some surgical procedures in humans.
  • It is considered a “club drug,” like ecstasy, and it has been abused as a date-rape drug.
  • Ketamine should only be used as prescribed by a doctor.


What is ketamine?

ketamine and dissociationKetamine can produce feelings of dissociation when used as a drug of abuse.

Ketamine belongs to a class of drugs known as dissociative anesthetics. It is also known as Ketalar, Ketanest, and Ketaset.

Other drugs in this category include the hallucinogen, phencyclidine (PCP), dextromethorphan (DXM), and nitrous oxide, or laughing gas.

These types of drugs can make a person feel detached from sensations and surroundings, as if they are floating outside their body.



Therapeutic uses

Ketamine is most often used in veterinary medicine. In humans, it can induce and maintain general anesthesia before, during, and after surgery.

For medical purposes, ketamine is either injected into a muscle or given through an intravenous (IV) line.

It is considered safe as an anesthetic, because it does not reduce blood pressure or lower the breathing rate.

The fact that it does not need an electricity supply, oxygen, or highly trained staff makes it a suitable option in less wealthy countries and in disaster zones.

In human medical practice, it is used in procedures such as:

  • cardiac catheterization
  • skin grafts
  • orthopedic procedures
  • diagnostic procedures on the eye, ear, nose, and throat
  • minor surgical interventions, such as dental extractions

It has been used in a hospital setting to control seizures in patients with status epilepticus (SE), a type of epilepsy that can lead to brain damage and death. However, researchers point out that ketamine is normally used for this purpose after 5 to 6 other options have proven ineffective.

It is also an analgesic, and, in lower doses, it can relieve pain.

In 2014, researchers found that a ketamine infusion significantly reduced symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in 41 patients who had undergone a range of traumas.

Researchers are looking into other possible medical uses of ketamine, particularly in the areas of treatment-resistant depression, suicide prevention, and substance use disorders. However, this use is controversial.


Treating depression

Researchers for the American Psychological Association (APA) noted in April 2017 that a number of doctors prescribe ketamine “off-label,” for people with treatment-resistant depression.

However, they caution:

While ketamine may be beneficial to some patients with mood disorders, it is important to consider the limitations of the available data and the potential risk associated with the drug when considering the treatment option.”

The FDA has not yet approved it for treating depression.

In a study published in BMC Medical Ethics, researchers urge doctors to “minimize the risk to patients” by considering carefully the evidence before prescribing ketamine off-label for patients to treat depression and prevent suicide.

Citing “questionable practice” regarding the prescription of ketamine, they point out that there is not enough evidence to prove that ketamine is safe, and that some studies supporting its use have not been sufficiently rigorous in terms of research ethics.

They call for open debate, more research, and for doctors to try all other options first, before prescribing ketamine.

The National Institutes of Health (NIH) are currently supporting research into whether ketamine may help people with treatment-resistant depression.




Ketamine use can have a wide variety of adverse effects, including:

  • drowsiness
  • changes in perceptions of color or sound
  • hallucinations, confusion, and delirium
  • dissociation from body or identity
  • agitation
  • difficulty thinking or learning
  • nausea
  • dilated pupils and changes in eyesight
  • inability to control eye movements
  • involuntary muscle movements and muscle stiffness
  • slurred speech
  • numbness
  • amnesia
  • slow heart beat
  • behavioral changes
  • increased pressure in the eyes and brain

It can also lead to a loss of appetite, upset stomach, and vomiting.

When used as an anesthetic in humans, doctors combine it with another drug to prevent hallucinations.


Ketamine is considered relatively safe in medical settings, because it does not affect the protective airway reflexes, and it does not depress the circulatory system, as other anesthetic medications do.

However, some patients have reported disturbing sensations when awakening from ketamine anesthesia.

Ketamine can cause an increase in blood pressure and intracranial pressure, or pressure in the brain.

People with the following conditions cannot receive ketamine for medical purposes:

  • brain swelling
  • glaucoma
  • brain lesion or tumor

It is used with caution in those with:

  • coronary artery disease
  • increased blood pressure
  • thyroid disease
  • chronic alcohol addiction
  • acute alcohol intoxication
  • aneurysm
  • chest pain
  • mental illness

These effects may be stronger in people aged over 65 years.

Some people may have an allergy to the ingredients. Patients with any type of allergy should tell their doctor before using any medication.

Anyone who is using this drug for therapeutic purposes on a regular basis should have regular blood pressure checks.

As a drug of abuse

Ketamine is most often used in the dance club setting as a party drug. It produces an abrupt high that lasts for about an hour. Users report euphoria, along with feelings of floating and other “out of body” sensations. Hallucinations, similar to those experienced with LSD, are common.

In 2014, 1.4 percent of 12th graders reported using ketamine for recreational purposes. This was down from 2002, when 2.6 percent reported using it.

Street names include:

  • Cat Valium
  • KitKat
  • Special K
  • Vitamin K
  • The horse tranquilizer
  • Ket
  • Purple
  • Super K
  • Jet

It is taken orally as a pill, snorted, smoked with tobacco or marijuana, or mixed into drinks. Most often, it is cooked into a white powder for snorting. Taken orally, it can cause severe nausea and vomiting.

Regardless of how it is ingested, its effects begin within a few minutes and last for less than an hour.

Higher doses can produce more intense effects known as being in the “K-hole,” where users become unable to move or communicate and feel very far away from their body.

Some users seek out this type of transcendental experience, while others find it terrifying and consider it an adverse effect.

Adverse effects

Unwanted effects include:

  • addiction
  • psychosis
  • amnesia
  • impaired motor function
  • high blood pressure
  • respiratory problems
  • seizures

As the user can become oblivious to their environment, ketamine abuse puts the person at risk of accidental injury to themselves and vulnerable to assault by others.

Problems with co-ordination, judgment, and the physical senses can continue for up to 24 hours. If an individual is using ketamine in a recreational setting, a sober friend should remain with them to ensure their safety.

Long-term effects include bladder and kidney problems, stomach pain, and memory loss.

If addiction and dependence develop, there is also a risk of depression.

Frequent, illegal use of ketamine can lead to serious mental disorders and major physical harm to the bladder, known as ketamine-induced ulcerative cystitis.

Ketamine and alcohol

Ketamine toxicity alone is unlikely to lead to death, according to the WHO. However, combining it with other substances, such as alcohol, can increase the sedative effects, possibly leading to a fatal overdose.



The risk of overdose is high, because, for a recreational user, there is only a slight difference in dosage between obtaining the drug’s desired effects and an overdose.


Ketamine is a Class III controlled substance. Prolonged use can cause dependence, tolerance, and withdrawal symptoms. Quitting can lead to depression, anxiety, insomnia, and flashbacks.

Chronic users have been known to “binge” their ketamine use in an attempt to experience again the dissociative, euphoric effects of their early first use.

The complications of long-term use can be fatal.

A final word

Ketamine is an anesthetic drug, used in human and veterinary medicine. It is important to distinguish the valid medical uses from the non-medical, recreational use of the drug.

When properly administered by a trained medical professional, ketamine is a safe and valuable medication.

Used in recreational settings, however, ketamine abuse can produce unpredictable physical and mental health results. In the long term, it can lead to psychological damage and, in some cases, death.

Any drug use should be prescribed by a doctor who knows the patient’s full medical history.

ketamine and depression.

Depression: Keta​​mine prevents loss of pleasure in primates

Depression: Keta​​mine prevents loss of pleasure in primates

Published Wed 7 Dec 2018

New research, which features in the journal Neuron, shows that primates lose excitement in anticipation of a reward when a specific area of their brain becomes overactive. The study also shows that ketamine affects this brain region and prevents the loss of pleasure.

woman sitting on the edge of the bed seen from behind

A loss of interest or pleasure in activities that were once exciting is one of the hallmarks of depression.

Depression is “the leading cause of disability worldwide” and one of the most common mental health problems in the United States.

The symptoms of major depression include depressed mood and loss of interest or pleasure in daily activities. Some people may also experience difficulty sleeping, eating, and focusing or have intrusive thoughts of death or taking their own life.

The loss of interest, pleasure, or excitement in anticipation of activities that the individual once perceived as enjoyable is called anhedonia.

The brain mechanisms that underpin anhedonia in depression have remained unclear until now, and this lack of knowledge has hindered the success of many antidepressant treatments.

Now, a new study casts much-needed light on this symptom. Leading a team of researchers, professor Angela Roberts from the Department of Physiology, Development, and Neuroscience at the University of Cambridge, United Kingdom, and doctoral researcher and medical student Laith Alexander set out to study this phenomenon in marmosets.

Marmosets are a type of nonhuman primate with frontal lobes that are very similar to those of humans. This physical similarity means that the findings are more easily translatable to humans than they would be if the study involved rodents instead.

Prof. Roberts and colleagues tested the effects of ketamine, a hallucinogenic drug that has recently garnered interest as a potential treatment for depression, and found that it had a positive effect on the primates.


Studying anhedonia in primates

Prof. Roberts explains the motivation behind the study, saying, “Imaging studies of [people with depression] have given us a clue about some of the brain regions that may be involved in anhedonia, but we still don’t know which of these regions is causally responsible.”

“A second important issue,” she adds, “is that anhedonia is multi-faceted — it goes beyond a loss of pleasure and can involve a lack of anticipation and motivation, and it’s possible that these different aspects may have distinct underlying causes.”

To find out more about the brain mechanisms behind anhedonia, Prof. Roberts and her team devised an experiment in which they trained primates to react to two sounds. Sound A indicated that the marmosets would receive marshmallows as a treat while no treat followed sound B.

After the training, blood pressure measurements and head movements showed that the marmosets would get excited on hearing sound A but would not respond in this way to sound B.

Next, the scientists surgically implanted very thin metal tubes into the marmosets’ heads, through which they injected either a drug or a placebo into the brains of the primates.

The researchers targeted a specific brain region called “area 25,” which the drug made temporarily hyperactive. They used PET scans to study the primates’ brain activity.


Brain’s area 25 is key in anhedonia

The primates that received the drug showed increased activity in area 25 in the brain and also displayed significantly lower excitement in anticipation of the marshmallows.

In contrast, there was no change in either the brain activity or behavior of the primates that received the placebo.

In a second experiment, the primates had to work for their rewards. At first, they received a treat after touching a colored shape on a screen just once.

How does ketamine relieve depression so quickly?

How does ketamine relieve depression so quickly?
New research breaks down the molecular underpinnings of ketamine’s fast-acting properties.

However, over the course of the experiment, the primates had to press the shape an increasing number of times before they received the marshmallow. Eventually, the animals would give up because the treat was no longer worth the effort.

The researchers found that the marmosets with a hyperactive area 25 gave up much more quickly. PET scans also revealed that abnormal activity in this brain area overflowed into other brain areas, which also became overactive when the anticipatory excitement dwindled.

How ketamine prevents the loss of pleasure

Finally, the researchers tested the effect that ketamine had on the primates. They gave the marmosets ketamine 24 hours before repeating the same experiments as before.

This time, ketamine blocked the activity of the drug that overactivated area 25. The brain activity of the primates that received ketamine looked normal in PET scans, and the primates continued to exhibit just as much excitement in anticipation of the marshmallow treats.

“Understanding the brain circuits that underlie specific aspects of anhedonia is of major importance,” says first author Laith Alexander, “not only because anhedonia is a core feature of depression but also because it is one of the most treatment-resistant symptoms.”

Studies show that as many as 30 percent of people living with depression have a form of the condition that does not respond to treatment.

By revealing the specific symptoms and brain circuits that are sensitive to antidepressants like ketamine, this study moves us one step closer to understanding how and why patients may benefit from different treatments.”

N​​ew cancer drug safely boosts radiation therapy

N​​ew cancer drug safely boosts radiation therapy

​ ​Published ​Mon 19th Nov 2018

A new clinical trial tests a radiotherapy-boosting drug in the fight against various forms of cancer.

patient undergoing radiation therapy

New research finds a safe way to boost the effects of radiation in cancer therapy.

Cancer continues to be one of the top causes of death in the United States. According to the National Cancer Institute, there will be 1,735,350 new cancer cases by the end of 2018, of which 609,640 people will die as a result.

Radiation therapy is one of the most common treatments used in the fight against cancer. About 60 percent of cancer patients benefit from radiation, which is used either on its own or together with chemotherapy.

Radiation therapy works by puncturing the DNA inside cancer cells. This stops the cancer cells from growing and multiplying, eventually causing them to die.

Doctors can use radiation to destroy cancer tumors completely or to shrink them in preparation for surgery. This depends on the type of tumor, as some cancers are more sensitive to radiation therapy than others.

New research may have found a way to boost the strength of radiation therapy against cancer cells. Doctors administered a new drug called 5-iodo-2-pyrimidinone-2′-deoxribose (IPdR) — also referred to as ropidoxuridine — to people with cancer in combination with radiation therapy.

Dr. Timothy Kinsella, from the Department of Radiation Oncology at the Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University and Rhode Island Hospital — both in Providence, RI — presented the results of the clinical trial at the 30th EORTC-NCI-AACR Symposium on Molecular Targets and Cancer Therapeutics in Dublin, Ireland.

The symposium is a collaboration between the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC), the National Cancer Institute (NCI), and the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR).


Testing the effects of IPdR and radiation

Dr. Kinsella explains how scientists developed the drug IPdR, and how it compares with other therapies. He says, “Previous research found a promising compound called iododeoxyuridine, or IUdR, that worked very well to improve the effectiveness of radiotherapy.”

However, the researcher goes on, “IUdR could only be given intravenously and proved to have many side effects for patients.”

Cancer: Could a 'universal' blood test make detection easier?

Cancer: Could a ‘universal’ blood test make detection easier?
The first universal screening tool for detecting cancer may be underway.

“As a result, this new drug, IPdR, was developed. It’s a prodrug that can be taken as a capsule and, once inside the body, it’s converted into the active drug, IUdR.” The researchers believe that in its active form, IUdR weakens cancer cells and makes them easier to destroy with radiation.

In the trial, Dr. Kinsella and team administered the drug to 18 people with various advanced cancers, including cancer of the esophagus, pancreas, liver, and colon

The trial participants received a dose of the IPdR prodrug every day for 28 days. A prodrug is the inactive version of a drug which becomes active once metabolization has taken place.

Throughout the 28-day treatment, the doctors increased the dose gradually, measured levels of both the IPdR prodrug and the active IUdR in the participants’ blood, as well as monitored the participants for side effects.


IPdR helps radiation kill cancer cells

Overall, the trial found that IPdR was safe up to a dose of 1,200 milligrams (mg) per day for 28 days.

The side effects were minimal throughout this period, and the trial results indicate that the 1,200 mg dose of the prodrug increased blood levels of the active drug enough to make cancer cells weaker in the face of radiation therapy.

Also, the researchers evaluated the tumors of 14 of the cancer patients 54 days after the start of the treatment. CT and MRI scans revealed that the tumors disappeared altogether in one person, shrunk by 30 percent in three people, and stagnated in nine others.

One individual developed an infection and had to stop the treatment. His condition worsened as a result.

Dr. ​Lopez comments on the findings, saying, “This clinical trial showed that when patients take IPdR at home before coming for radiation treatment, the level of IUdR in their bloodstream is high enough to make radiation more effective at killing cancer cells.”

“It also showed that the dose of IPdR needed to achieve therapeutic levels of IUdR in the blood causes minimal side effects.”

“However, this trial was with patients who had recurrent cancer and had already received a number of other cancer treatments,” the researcher notes. “In newly diagnosed patients, it could be that we can safely use a higher dose and have a bigger effect on tumors.”

This trial is the first to test it out in patients while they are receiving radiation therapy, and the results suggest that it’s safe with minimal side effects.”

Dr. ​Luiz Hopkins

Privacy | Terms | Ad policy | Careers


Cannabis and the brain, ​​Marijuana use on the rise

Cannabis and the brain: Recent studies shed new light

 ​Monday 1​9​ Nov​ember ​201​8


Recent rese​​arch sheds new light on the effects of cannabis on the brain. It reveals a complex pattern of potential harms and benefits that varies with age and disease.

cannabis plant

New research uncovers novel ways in which marijuana affects the developing brain.

The findings came from a number of studies that featured at the 2018 annual meeting of the Society for Neuroscience, held in San Diego, CA.

They reveal, for instance, that exposure to marijuana before birth and during teen years can affect the developing brain in several ways.

Some of these ways disrupt communication between different parts of the brain, while others interfere with learning and memory and disrupt levels of chemical messengers and metabolic compounds.

However, exposure to a compound present in marijuana can improve memory in Alzheimer’s disease and even reduce some of its symptoms.

​​Marijuana use on the rise

Among the hundreds of compounds in the marijuana, or cannabis, plant are more than 100 called cannabinoids that can alter the release of messenger chemicals in the brain and nervous system.

In the United States, cannabis is the “most popular illicit drug.” A nationwide survey revealed that 22.2 million people aged 12 and older said that they had used cannabis in the past month.

Alcohol ‘more damaging to brain health than marijuana’
Scientists argue that using alcohol can damage the brain more than using marijuana, as it alters the structure of gray and white matter.

Also, the percentage in this age group who reported having used the substance during the past month has risen steadily from 6.2 to 8.3 percent in 2002–2015.

More and more people are now using cannabis not only as a recreational drug but also medicinally, such as to help alleviate the pain and symptoms of multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, and other long-term conditions.

The increase in cannabis use — together with the relaxation of legislation by many states — is not, however, matched by an increase in conclusive evidence on its long-term benefits and harms.


Studies shed new light

The six studies unveiled at the recent meeting shed some much-needed new light on the long-term effects of cannabis use over the lifespan. Specifically, they found that:

  • Exposing unborn rats to delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which is a psychoactive compound of cannabis, reduced their resilience to stress in later life.
  • Such exposure also led to faulty development of brain circuits for memory and learning, which the scientists observed when the animals reached adolescence.
  • Adolescent rats that used cannabinoids showed enhanced activity in brain circuits that regulate the formation of habits.
  • Cannabinoid use by adolescent rats also showed physical alterations in the development of brain regions involved in self-control, making decisions, and planning.
  • In adult mice, the long-term use of cannabinoids led to changes in connectivity and metabolism in regions of the brain involved in memory and learning.
  • Mice with Alzheimer’s disease showed memory improvements and lost fewer brain cells when scientists treated them with THC. This could lead to a therapy for the human disease.

‘Need for better understanding’

From these and other studies, the evidence suggests that cannabis can do long-term harm to the unborn; and yet, among pregnant women, it is the most popular illegal drug.

Experimenting with marijuana often starts in adolescence, at a time when the developing brain is still vulnerable.

The new studies confirm that cannabis use may have some medical benefits in specific situations, noted press conference presider Dr. Michael Taffe, who researches substance abuse therapy at the Scripps Research Institute in La Jolla, CA.

However, he cautioned that the studies also underscore the vital need for “a better understanding of the negative aspects as well, particularly for pregnant women, teens, and chronic users.”

Today’s findings lend new understanding of the complex effects that cannabis has on the brain.”

Dr. ​Ivan Lopez

How to make Methamphetamine at home

Making Methamphetamine at home
"You can order all the composition from us now."

List of chemicals and materials: 
Diluted HCl - also called Muriatic acid - can be obtained from hardware stores, in the pool section

NaOH - also called lye

Ethyl Ether - aka Diethyl Ether - Et-0-Et - can be obtained from engine starting fluid, usually from a large supermarket. Look for one that says "high ethyl ether content", such as Prestone

Ephedrine The cottons in todays vicks nasle inhalers dont contain efed or pfed (ephedrin or psuedoephedrin) but there are still lots of easy ways to get good ephed or pfed, pure ephedrin can be extracted out of it's plant matter, from a plant that can be bought at most garden stores. Or you can get pfed from decongestive pills like sudafed. Most people perfer to work with pfed from pills rather then ephed from the plant. The important thing is that you must have pure pfed/ephed as any contaminants will fuck up the molar ratio leaving you with over-reduced shit or under-reduced shit. Or contaminats will jell durring baseifying and gak up your product which will then be very hard to clean. So you want to find a pill that is nearly pure pfed hcl, or as close to pure as you can get. Also check the lable on your pills and see what inactive ingredients they contain. Inactive ingredients are things like binders and flavors. These you dont want and will remove when cleaning your pills. but certain inactive ingredients are harder to remove then others. You dont want pills with a red coating, you dont want pills with alot of cellose in them and you dont want pills with much wax. you also dont want pills that contain povidone. As a rule, if you have a two pills that contain the same amount of pfed hcl then take the smaller sized pill because it obviously has less binders and inactive ingredients, time released pills are usualy harder to work with because they have more binders and tend to gel up durring the a/b stage. Also only buy pills that have pfed hcl as the only active ingredient. You first have to make ephedrine (which is sometimes sold as meth by itself):If you are selling it...I would just make ephedrine and say it's meth.

Distilled water - it's really cheap, so you have no reason to use the nasty stuff from the tap. Do things right.

List of equipment : 
A glass eyedropper 

Three small glass bottles with lids (approx. 3 oz., but not important)one should be marked at 1.5oz, use tape on the outside to mark it (you might want to label it as ether). One should be clear (and it can't be the marked one).

A Pyrex dish (the meatloaf one is suggested) 

A glass quart jar 

Sharp scissors

Clean rubber gloves

Coffee filters

A measuring cup

Measuring spoons 

Preparing your Lab:

Preparing Ethyl Ether:
WARNING: Ethyl Ether is very flammable and is heavier than air. Do not use ethyl ether near flame or non-sparkless motors. It is also an anaesthetic and can cause respiratory collapse if you inhale too much.

Take the unmarked small bottle and spray starter fluid in it until it looks half-full. Then fill the rest of the way with water, cap the bottle and shake for 5 minutes. Let it sit for a minute or two, and tap the side to try and separate the clear upper layer. Then, draw off the top (ether) layer with the eyedropper, and throw away the lower (water) and cloudy layer. Place the ether in the marked container. Repeat this until you have about 1.5 oz. of ether. Put the cap on it, and put it in the freezer if you can. Rinse the other bottle and let it stand.

Ethyl ether is very pungent. Even a small evaporated amount is quite noticeable. 

Ephedrine & or P-Ephedrine: Please discuss this on the neonjoint forum 

5. Pour 1/8 teaspoon of the lye crystals into the bottle of ephedrine and agitate. Do this carefully, as the mixture will become hot, and give off hydrogen gas and/or steam. H2 gas is explosive and lighter than air, avoid any flames as usual. Repeat this step until the mixture remains cloudy. This step neutralizes the HCl in the salt, leaving the insoluble free base (l-desoxyephedrine) again. Why do we do this? So that we can get rid of any water-soluble impurities. For 3 oz. bottles, this should take only 3 repetitions or so.

6. Fill the bottle from step 5 up the rest of the way with ethyl ether. Cap the bottle, and agitate for about 8 minutes. It is very important to expose every molecule of the free-base to the ether for as long as possible. This will cause the free base to dissolve into the ether (it -is- soluble in ether). 

7. Let the mixture settle. There will be a middle layer that is very thick. Tap the side of the bottle to get this layer as thin as possible. This is why this bottle should be clear. 

8. Remove the top (ether) layer with the eyedropper, being careful not to get any of the middle layer in it. Place the removed ether layer into a third bottle.

9. Add to the third bottle enough water to fill it half-way and about 5 drops of muriatic acid. Cap it. Shake the bottle for 2 minutes. When it settles, remove the top layer and throw it away. The free base has now been bonded to the HCl again, forming a water soluble salt. This time, we're getting rid of ether-soluble impurities. Make sure to get rid of all the ether before going to step 11! 

10. If there is anything left from step 3, repeat the procedure with it. 

11. Evaporate the solution in the Pyrex dish on low heat. You can do this on the stove or nuke it in the microwave (be careful of splashing), but I have found that if you leave it on top of a hot-water heater (like the one that supplies hot water to your house) for about 2-3 days, the remaining crystals will be ephedrine HCl.

If you microwave it, I suggest no more than 5-10s at one time. If it starts "popping", that means you have too little liquid left to microwave. You can put it under a bright (100W) lamp instead. Microwaving can result in uneven heating, anyway.

First Batch: 120mg ephedrine HClEstimated: 300mg (100% of theoretical, disregarding HCl)

Now, Making Methamphetamine out of ephedrine by reducing it with Hydroiodic Acid and Red Phosphorus.

Items needed:
Alot of matchbooks (the kind with the striking pad)

Coffee filters (or filter paper)

Something that measures ml and grams

A flask (a small pot with a lid can be used)


Hydroiodic Acid (I will tell you how to make this)

Red Phosphorus (I will tell you how to make this)


*Optional (toluene and HCI gas)

Does Full-Fat Dairy Promote Heart Disease? Research Says NO


Does Full-Fat Dairy Promote Heart Disease? Research Says NO

dairy and heart disease


  • Saturated fats do not clog your arteries or promote heart disease. On the contrary, these fats are important for optimal health, and actually combat many of today’s chronic diseases, including heart disease
  • Analysis of the blood fats in more than 2,900 adults revealed the mortality rate during a 22-year period was identical regardless of levels — a finding that exonerates whole milk as a health wrecker
  • People with higher levels of heptadecanoic acid — a component of butterfat — had a 42 percent lower risk of stroke, the analysis found
  • A 2014 systematic review concluded current evidence does not support cardiovascular guidelines that discourage saturated fat consumption
  • Research has also shown eating high-fat cheese raises your high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, which is thought to be protective against metabolic diseases and heart disease

By Dr. Luiz Hopkins

Whole milk, cheese and butter have long been demonized as unhealthy, their saturated fat content incorrectly identified as a driver of obesity, heart disease and related health problems. We now know eating fat does not make you fat. Science has also demolished the idea that saturated fats clog your arteries and promote heart disease. On the contrary, these fats are important for optimal health, and actually combat many of today’s chronic diseases, including heart disease.

While the low-fat myth still lives, the 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans1,2 does recognize that reducing TOTAL fat intake has no bearing on obesity or heart disease risk.

Instead, the guidelines rightfully warn that sugar and refined grains are the primary culprits. Unfortunately, the guidelines fall far short by still suggesting a 10 percent limit on saturated fats specially, and the low-fat dairy recommendation remains. This, despite the fact that mounting research supports consumption of full-fat dairy products over low-fat ones.

Full-Fat Dairy Consumption Has No Influence on Mortality Rates

In a recent article in The Atlantic,3senior editor Dr. James Hamblin discusses “the vindication” of full-fat dairy, and the research that’s tossing low-fat recommendations by the wayside. One of the most recent studies, which analyzed the blood fats in more than 2,900 adults, found the mortality rate during a 22-year period was identical regardless of their levels. “The implication is that it didn’t matter if people drank whole or skim or 2-percent milk …” Hamblin writes.

At the end of the day, consumption of dairy fats — either high or low — does not appear to influence your risk of death. Corresponding author Marcia de Oliveira Otto, assistant professor of epidemiology, human genetics and environmental science at the University of Texas School of Public Health, told Hamblin, “I think the big news here is that even though there is this conventional wisdom that whole-fat dairy is bad for heart disease, we didn’t find that. And it’s not only us. A number of recent studies have found the same thing.”

For example, a systematic review and meta-analysis published in 2014, which looked at 32 observational studies with well over half a million participants, came to the conclusion that “Current evidence does not clearly support cardiovascular guidelines that encourage high consumption of polyunsaturated fatty acids and low consumption of total saturated fats.”

Otto did note, however, that whole milk is likely a healthier choice for the fact that low-fat products contain added sugars, and excessive sugar consumption, as you probably know, raises your risk of virtually all chronic disease.

Also, while dairy consumption overall had no impact on mortality, Otto’s team found certain saturated dairy fats did have specific health benefits. For example, those with higher levels of heptadecanoic acid — a component of butterfat — had a 42 percent lower risk of stroke. Other studies have found heptadecanoic acid may also help reverse prediabetes,6 and full-fat dairy such as whole milk has been linked to a lower risk of Type 2 diabetes.

Raw Versus Pasteurized Milk

No discussion about dairy would be complete without mentioning there’s a big difference between pasteurized dairy products and raw ones. Milk can only be consumed in its raw, unpasteurized state if the milk comes from organically-raised, grass fed cows. Animals raised in concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) are not only routinely fed antibiotics and other drugs, making their milk unsuitable for raw consumption, their living conditions promote disease that necessitates pasteurization to kill of pathogens.

From a nutritional perspective, the differences in diet also play a significant role. Raw, grass fed cow’s milk contains a number of health-promoting components that you simply cannot get from pasteurized CAFO milk.

The grain- and sugar-based diets of CAFO cows alter their digestive health and the nutritional composition of the milk. According to a 2015 study in The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, children who drink raw milk have lower rates of viral and respiratory tract infections, including regular colds. According to the authors:

“Early life consumption of raw cow’s milk reduced the risk of manifest respiratory infections and fever by about 30 percent … [T]he public health impact of minimally processed but pathogen-free milk might be enormous, given the high prevalence of respiratory infections in the first year of life and the associated direct and indirect costs.”

As evidenced in other studies, they confirmed that raw milk boosts immune function and lowers inflammation, as revealed by reductions in C-reactive protein levels among raw milk drinkers. Raw milk also contains:

Healthy bacteria (probiotics) that nourish your gut microbiomeBeneficial raw fats, amino acids, and proteins in a highly bioavailable form, all 100 percent digestible
More than 60 digestive enzymes, growth factors and immunoglobulins (antibodies). These enzymes are destroyed during pasteurization, making pasteurized milk harder to digestVitamins A, B, C, D, E and K in highly bioavailable forms. Also has a balanced blend of minerals (calcium, magnesium, phosphorus and iron) the absorption of which is enhanced by live lactobacilli
Phosphatase, an enzyme that aids and assists in the absorption of calcium in your bones, and lipase enzyme, which helps to hydrolyze and absorb fatsHealthy unoxidized cholesterol
High amounts of omega-3 fats while being low in inflammatory omega-6Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), which has a number of health-promoting benefits, including anti-cancer activity

Is Raw Milk Dangerous?

While the authors suggest that raw milk may have health hazards that need to be overcome, such fears are vastly overblown, and their views are probably just reflecting the official propaganda against raw milk, which appears to be more about protecting the CAFO dairy industry than protecting consumers against truly dangerous products.

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) insist that raw milk will increase your risk of death and disease, but Europe — where raw milk consumption is far more common — is not experiencing this issue, and foodborne illness statistics offer no support for such fears whatsoever. In fact, research by Dr. Ted Beals shows you’re 35,000 times more likely to get sick from any other food than raw milk.

Both the FDA and USDA warn that raw milk can carry disease-causing bacteria, — completely ignoring and overlooking the fact that these bacteria are the result of industrial farming practices that lead to diseased animals. Healthy animals raised on pasture simply will not harbor dangerous amounts of pathogenic bacteria. The only way their raw milk warning would make sense is if it specified that you should never drink unpasteurized CAFO milk, as that could indeed be disastrous.

Grass fed milk, on the other hand, rarely ever poses a health risk when consumed raw, provided the producer is following good, sanitary practices, and organic dairy farms are required to follow stricter protocols in this regard. An investigation by Mark McAfee, CEO of Organic Pastures Dairy — which included a FOIA request to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for data on deaths claimed to be related to raw milk — revealed:

  • There have been no reported deaths from raw milk in California
  • The two deaths the CDC lists as being related to raw milk were actually due to illegal Mexican bathtub cheese, and not raw milk produced in the U.S.
  • The last people to die from milk died from contaminated pasteurized milk
  • According to a Cornell study performed on CDC data, 1,100 illnesses were linked to raw milk between 1973 and 2009. Meanwhile, 422,000 illnesses were caused by pasteurized milk. While no one died from raw milk, there were at least 50 deaths from pasteurized milk or pasteurized cheese

Research Exonerates High-Fat Cheese

As with whole dairy, research into the health effects of cheese have come to exonerating conclusions as well. As reported by Joanna Maricato, an analyst at New Nutrition Business, in 2015:

“In the past, studies focused on analyzing individual nutrients and their effects on the body. Now, there is a growing tendency to look at foods and food groups as a whole … As a consequence, amazing results are appearing from studies on dairy and particularly cheese, proving that the combination of nutrients in cheese has many promising health benefits that were never considered in the past.”

For example, research published in 2016 found eating high-fat cheese helps improve your health by raising your high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Higher HDL levels are thought to be protective against metabolic diseases and heart disease. Nearly 140 adults were enrolled in the 12-week study to investigate the biological effects of full-fat cheese.

Divided into three groups, the first two were told to eat either 80 grams of high-fat or reduced fat cheese each day. The third group ate 90 grams of bread and jam each day, with no cheese. None of the groups saw any significant changes in their low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, but the high-fat cheese group increased their HDLs.

Another study published that same year showed that cheese consumption helps prevent fatty liver and improves triglyceride and cholesterol levels — parameters used to gauge your cardiovascular disease risk. Studies have also found that full-fat cheese can be useful for weight management. In one, they found it helps ramp up your metabolism, thereby reducing your obesity risk.

Roquefort cheese in particular has been linked to cardiovascular health and improved longevity, courtesy of its anti-inflammatory properties.Cheese — especially when made from the milk of grass-pastured animals — is also an excellent source of several nutrients that are important for health, including:

  • High-quality protein and amino acids
  • High-quality saturated fats and omega-3 fats
  • Vitamins and minerals, including calcium, zinc, phosphorus, vitamins A, D, B2 (riboflavin) and B12
  • Vitamin K2 (highest amounts can be found in Gouda, Brie, Edam. Other cheeses with lesser, but significant, levels of K2: Cheddar, Colby, hard goat cheese, Swiss and Gruyere)
  • CLA, a powerful cancer-fighter and metabolism booster

Butter and Fermented Raw Dairy Are Superior Choices

While raw, whole milk provides plenty of valuable health benefits, it is still high in natural sugars, and could easily throw you out of ketosis if you’re on a cyclical ketogenic diet. You can still reap the benefits of raw dairy, though, by including cheese, butter and fermented products such as kefir or yogurt made from raw, grass fed milk.

Personally, I go through anywhere from half to a full pound of raw butter every week, typically on sweet potatoes that I consume after my strength training sessions. Studies have linked butter consumption to a number of health benefits, including a lower risk of heart disease, cancer, arthritis, osteoporosis, asthma and obesity. It also promotes thyroid health and good digestion, and supports fertility and growth and development in children.

Raw, organic yogurt and kefir have the added benefits of being lower in sugar and providing you with high amounts of probiotics, both of which are side effects of the fermentation process. Store bought yogurt and kefir really cannot compare though. For starters, they’re typically chockfull of added sugars, which nourish disease-causing bacteria in your gut. And, since they are pasteurized, commercial yogurt and kefir contain only the probiotics added back in afterward. These facts apply to both organic and nonorganic brands.

Many may also contain artificial sweeteners, colors, flavors and additives, none of which will do your gut and overall health any favors. The good news is yogurt and kefir are both easy to make at home, provided you have access to raw milk. For guidance and instructions, see “How to Make Fresh Homemade Yogurt.” If for whatever reason you still prefer to buy ready-made products, the Cornucopia Institute’s Yogurt Report can guide you toward the healthiest commercial

Disclaimer: The entire contents of this website are based upon the opinions of Dr. Luiz Hopkins, unless otherwise noted. Individual articles are based upon the opinions of the respective author, who retains copyright as marked. The information on this website is not intended to replace a one-on-one relationship with a qualified health care professional. It is intended as a sharing of knowledge and information from the research and experience of Dr. Luiz Hopkins and his community. Dr. Luiz Hopkins encourages you to make your own health care decisions based upon your research and in partnership with a qualified health care professional. If you are pregnant, nursing, taking medication, or have a medical condition, consult your health care professional before using products based on this content.

Understanding Cancer

Understanding Cancer


Understanding Cancer

What Is Cancer?

In the most basic terms, cancer refers to cells that grow out-of-control and invade other tissues. Cells may become cancerous due to the accumulation of defects, or mutations, in their DNA. Certain inherited genetic defects (for example, BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations) and infections can increase the risk of cancer. Environmental factors (for example, air pollution) and poor lifestyle choices—such as smoking and heavy alcohol use—can also damage DNA and lead to cancer.

Most of the time, cells are able to detect and repair DNA damage. If a cell is severely damaged and cannot repair itself, it usually undergoes so-called programmed cell death or apoptosis. Cancer occurs when damaged cells grow, divide, and spread abnormally instead of self-destructing as they should.

You can place your order for all your cancer and diabetes medications with us at very moderate prices.All our prices have been subsidized thus our prices are very low as compared with others. Contact us.


Understanding Cancer

Malignant Tumors Vs. Benign Tumors

A tumor is an abnormal mass of cells. Tumors can either be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).

Benign Tumors

Benign tumors grow locally and do not spread. As a result, benign tumors are not considered cancer. They can still be dangerous, especially if they press against vital organs like the brain.

Malignant Tumors

Malignant tumors have the ability to spread and invade other tissues. This process, known as metastasis, is a key feature of cancer. There are many different types of malignancy based on where a cancer tumor originates.


Understanding Cancer

Cancer Metastasis

Metastasis is the process whereby cancer cells break free from a malignant tumor and travel to and invade other tissues in the body. Cancer cells metastasize to other sites via the lymphatic system and the bloodstream. Cancer cells from the original—or primary—tumor can travel to other sites such as the lungs, bones, liver, brain, and other areas. These metastatic tumors are “secondary cancers” because they arise from the primary tumor.

What Is Metastasized Cancer?

Metastatic cancer retains the name of the primary cancer. For example, bladder cancer that metastasizes to the liver is not liver cancer. It is called metastatic bladder cancer. Metastasis is significant because it helps determine the staging and treatment. Some types of metastatic cancer are curable, but many are not.


What Causes Cancer?

Certain genes control the life cycle—the growth, function, division, and death—of a cell. When these genes are damaged, the balance between normal cell growth and death is lost. Cancer cells are caused by DNA damage and out-of-control cell growth. The following is a partial list of factors known to damage DNA and increase the risk of cancer:

Mutations Cause

Genetic mutations may cause cancer. For example, mutations of genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 (linked to an increased risk of breast and ovarian cancers) can inhibit the body’s ability to safe-guard and repair DNA. Copies of these mutated genes can be passed on genetically to future generations, leading to a genetically-inherited increased risk of cancer.

Environment Cause

Cancer may be caused by environmental exposure. Sunlight can cause cancer through ultraviolet radiation. So can air pollutants like soot, wood dust, asbestos, and arsenic, to name just a few.

Microbes Cause

Some microbes are known to increase cancer risks. These include bacteria like H. pylori, which causes stomach ulcers and has been linked to gastric cancer. Viral infections (including Epstein-Barr, HPV, and hepatitis B and C) have also been linked to cancer.

Lifestyle and Diet Causes

Lifestyle choices can lead to cancer as well. Eating a poor diet, inactivity, obesity, heavy alcohol use, tobacco use including smoking, and exposure to chemicals and toxins are all associated with greater cancer risk.

Causes of Cancer: Treatment

Medical treatment with chemotherapy, radiation, targeted treatments (drugs designed to target a specific type of cancer cell) or immunosuppressive drugs used to decrease the spread of cancer throughout the body can also cause damage to healthy cells. Some “second cancers”, completely separate from the initial cancer, have been known to occur following aggressive cancer treatments; however, researchers are producing drugs that cause less damage to healthy cells (for example, targeted therapy).


Cancer Symptoms and Signs

There are more than 100 different types of cancer. Every cancer and every individual is unique. Cancer symptoms and signs depend on the size and location of the cancer as well as the presence or absence of metastasis.

Common Cancer Symptoms and Signs

Symptoms and signs of cancer may include:

  • Fever
  • Pain
  • Fatigue
  • Skin changes (redness, sores that won’t heal, jaundice, darkening)
  • Unintended weight loss or weight gain

Other more obvious signs of cancer may include:

  • Lumps or tumors (mass)
  • Difficulty swallowing
  • Changes or difficulties with bowel or bladder function
  • Persistent cough or hoarseness
  • Short of breath
  • Chest pain
  • Unexplained bleeding or discharge

6 Types of Cancer

Cancer can occur anywhere in the body. Broadly, cancers are classified as either solid (for example breast, lung, or prostate cancers) or liquid (blood cancers). Cancer is further classified according to the tissue in which it arises.

What Is Carcinoma?

Carcinomas are cancers that occur in epithelial tissues in the body. They comprise 80% to 90% of all cancers. Most breast, lung, colon, skin, and prostate cancers are carcinomas. This class includes the two most common skin cancers, basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Also in this class is the glandular cancer adenocarcinoma.

What Is Sarcoma Cancer?

Sarcomas occur in connective tissue like the bones, cartilage, fat, blood vessels, and muscles. This class of cancers includes the bone cancers osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma, Kaposi sarcoma (which causes skin lesions), and the muscle cancers rhabdomyosarcoma and leiomyosarcoma.

What Is Myeloma Cancer?

Myelomas are cancers that occur in plasma cells in the bone marrow. This class of cancer includes multiple myeloma, also known as Kahler disease.

What Is Leukemia?

Leukemias are a group of different blood cancers of the bone marrow. They cause large numbers of abnormal blood cells to enter the bloodstream.

What Is Lymphoma Cancer?

Lymphomas are cancers of the immune system cells. These include the rare but serious Hodgkin lymphoma (Hodgkin’s lymphoma, also Hodgkin’s disease) and a large group of white blood cell cancers known collectively as non-Hodgkin lymphoma (non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma).

What Is Mixed Cancer?

Mixed cancers arise from more than one type of tissue.


7 Common Cancers

Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States. The most common cancers diagnosed in the U.S. are those of the breast, prostate, lung, colon and rectum, and bladder. Cancers of the lung, colon and rectum, breast, and pancreas are responsible for the most deaths. The prognosis of different cancers is highly variable. Many cancers are curable with early detection and treatment. Cancers that are aggressive or diagnosed at a later stage may be more difficult to treat, and can even be life threatening.

What Is a Breast Cancer?

Breast cancer is the most common cancer in the United States, and one of the deadliest. About one in eight women will develop invasive breast cancer at some point in her life. Though death rates have decreased since 1989, more than 40,000 U.S. women are thought to have died from breast cancer in 2015 alone.

What Is Lung Cancer?

Lung cancer is the second-most-common cancer in the United States, and it is the deadliest for both men and women. In 2012, more than 210,000 Americans were diagnosed with lung cancer, and in the same year more than 150,000 Americans died from lung cancer. Worldwide, lung cancers are the most common cancers.

What Is a Prostate Cancer?

Prostate cancer is the most common cancer found in men. In 2013, more than 177,000 Americans were diagnosed with prostate cancer, and more than 27,000 American men died from prostate cancer.

What Is a Colorectal Cancer?

Of the cancers that can impact both men and women, colorectal cancer is the second-greatest killer in the United States.

What Is a Liver Cancer?

Liver cancer develops in about 20,000 men and 8,000 women each year. Hepatitis B and C and heavy drinking increase one’s risk of developing liver cancer.

What Is a Ovarian Cancer?

About 20,000 American women are diagnosed with ovarian cancer each year. For American women, ovarian cancer is the eighth most common cancer and the fifth leading cause of cancer death.

What Is a Pancreatic Cancer?

Pancreatic cancer has the highest mortality rate of all major cancers. Of the roughly 53,000 Americans diagnosed with pancreatic cancer each year, only 8 percent will survive more than five years.


How Stages of Cancer Are Determined

Doctors use the stages of cancer to classify cancer according to its size, location, and extent of spread. Staging helps doctors determine the prognosis and treatment for cancer. The TNM staging system classifies cancers according to:

  • Tumor (T): Primary tumor size and/or extent
  • Nodes (N): Spread of cancer to lymph nodes in the regional area of the primary tumor
  • Metastasis (M): Spread of cancer to distant sites away from the primary tumor

Some cancers, including those of the brain, spinal cord, bone marrow (lymphoma), blood (leukemia), and female reproductive system, do not receive a TNM classification. Instead, these cancers are classified according to a different staging systems.


What Are The Stages of Cancer?

The TNM classification of a cancer usually correlates to one of the following five stages.

  • Stage 0: This refers to cancer that is “in situ,” meaning that cancerous cells are confined to their site of origin. This type of cancer has not spread and is not invading other tissues.
  • Stage I – Stage III: These higher stages of cancer correspond to larger tumors and/or greater extent of disease. Cancers in these stages may have spread beyond the site of origin to invade regional lymph nodes, tissues, or organs.
  • Stage IV: This type of cancer has spread to distant lymph nodes, tissues, or organs in the body far away from the site of origin.

Diagnosing Cancer

Various tests may be performed in order to confirm a cancer diagnosis. Positron Emission Tomography and Computed Tomography (PET-CT) Scans and other similar tests can highlight “hot spots” of cancer cells with high metabolic rates.

The most common test and procedures used to diagnose cancer include:

  • Mammogram
  • Pap Test
  • Tumor Marker Test
  • Bone Scan
  • MRI
  • Tissue Biopsy
  • PET-CT Scan

The Role of Lymph Nodes in Cancer Diagnosis

Cancer that originates in the lymph nodes or other area of the lymphatic system is called lymphoma. Cancer that originates elsewhere in the body can spread to lymph nodes. The presence of metastasized cancer in the lymph nodes is may mean the cancer is growing quickly and/or is more likely to spread to other sites. The presence of cancer in lymph nodes often affects prognosis and treatment decisions. Many diagnostic tests look at the lymph nodes as an indicator.


What Are Treatment Options?

The treatment is highly variable depending on the type and stage of a cancer as well as the overall health of the patient. The most common treatments are surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. Other treatments include targeted/biological therapies, hematopoietic stem cell transplants, angiogenesis inhibitors, cryosurgery, and photodynamic therapy.

Every treatment has potential risks, benefits, and side effects. The patient and his or her care team, which may include an internist or other specialist, surgeon, oncologist, radiation oncologist, and others, will help determine the best and most appropriate course of treatment.

Is There a Cure for Cancer?

Despite enormous effort and funding, no one cure has been found yet to eliminate cancer. In 2016, the United States announced a $1 billion investment into creating such a cure, named the “National Cancer Moonshot” by President Barack Obama.

Until a cure can be found, prevention through a healthy lifestyle is the best way to stop cancer. Some ways to help protect yourself from cancer include eating plenty of fruits and vegetables, maintaining a healthy weight, abstaining from tobacco, drinking only in moderation, exercising, avoiding sun damage, getting immunizations, and getting regular health screenings.



Surgery is often performed to remove malignant tumors. Surgery allows for the determination of the exact size of the tumor as well as the extent of spread and invasion into other nearby structures or lymph nodes – all-important factors in prognosis and treatment. Surgery is often combined with other cancer treatments, such as chemotherapy and/or radiation.

Sometimes, cancer cannot be entirely surgically removed because doing so would damage critical organs or tissues. In this case, debulking surgery is performed to remove as much of the tumor as is safely possible. Similarly, palliative surgery is performed in the cases of advanced cancer to reduce the effects (for example, pain or discomfort) of a cancerous tumor. Debulking and palliative surgeries are not curative, but they seek to minimize the effects of the cancer.

Reconstructive surgery can be performed to restore the look or function of part of the body after cancer surgery. Breast reconstruction after a mastectomy is an example of this kind of surgery.


Radiation Therapy

Radiation is a very common cancer treatment. About 50% of all cancer patients will receive radiation treatment, which may be delivered before, during, or after surgery and/or chemotherapy. Radiation can be delivered externally — where X-rays, gamma rays, or other high-energy particles are delivered to the affected area from outside the body — or it can be delivered internally. Internal radiation therapy involves the placement of radioactive material inside the body near cancer cells. This is called brachytherapy.

Systemic radiation involves the administration of radioactive medication by mouth or intravenously. The radioactive material travels directly to the cancerous tissue. Radioactive iodine (I-131 for thyroid cancer) and strontium-89 (for bone cancer) are two examples of systemic radiation treatments.

Typically, external radiation is delivered 5 days a week over the course of 5 to 8 weeks. Other treatment regimens are sometimes used.


Chemotherapy Procedure

Chemotherapy, or “chemo,” refers to more than 100 different medications used to treat cancer and other conditions. If eliminating all cancer cells is not possible, the goals of treatment may be to slow the growth of the cancer, keep the cancer from spreading, and/or relieve cancer-associated symptoms (such as pain).

Depending on the type of chemotherapy prescribed, the medications may be given by mouth, injection, intravenously (IV), or topically. IV chemotherapy may be delivered via a catheter or port, which is usually implanted in a blood vessel of the chest for the duration of the therapy. Sometimes chemotherapy is delivered regionally, directly to the area that needs treatment. For example, intravesical therapy is used to infuse chemotherapy directly into the bladder for the treatment of bladder cancer.

The chemotherapy regimen a patient receives depends upon the type and stage of the cancer, any prior cancer treatment, and the overall health of the patient. Chemotherapy is usually administered in cycles over the course of days, weeks, or months, with rest periods in between.


Other Treatments

In addition to surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy, other therapies are used to treat cancer. These include:

Targeted or Biological Therapies

Targeted or biological therapies seek to treat cancer and boost the body’s immune system while minimizing damage to normal, healthy cells. Monoclonal antibodies, immunomodulating drugs, vaccines, and cytokines are examples of targeted or biological therapies.

Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplants

Hematopoietic stem cell transplants involve the infusion of stem cells into a cancer patient after the bone marrow has been destroyed by high-dose chemo and/or radiation.

Angiogenesis Inhibitors

Angiogenesis inhibitors are medications that inhibit the growth of new blood vessels that cancerous tumors need in order to grow.


Cryosurgery involves the application of extreme cold to kill precancerous and cancerous cells.

Photodynamic Therapy

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) involves the application of laser energy of a specific wavelength to tissue that has been treated with a photosensitizing agent, a medication that makes cancerous tissue susceptible to destruction with laser treatment. Photodynamic therapy selectively destroys cancer cells while minimizing the damage to normal, healthy tissues nearby.

Ongoing Research

Ongoing cancer research continues to identify newer, less toxic, and more effective cancer treatments.

Reviewed by Luiz Hopkins, MD, PhD on wednesday, June, 2018

Understanding Cancer: Metastasis, Stages of Cancer, and More

Risk factors and increasing protective factors may help prevent cancer

Risk factors and increasing protective factors may help prevent cancer

Avoiding cancer risk factors may help prevent certain cancers. Risk factors include smoking, being overweight, and not getting enough exercise. Increasing protective factors such as quitting smoking and exercising may also help prevent some cancers. Talk to your doctor or other health care professional about how you might lower your risk of cancer.

You can place your order for all your cancer and diabetes medications with us at very moderate prices.All our prices have been subsidized thus our prices are very low as compared with others. Contact us.

What are risk factors for ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancer?

A woman who has had breast cancer has an increased risk of ovarian cancer.

Family history of ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancer

A woman whose mother or sister had ovarian cancer has an increased risk of ovarian cancer. A woman with two or more relatives with ovarian cancer also has an increased risk of ovarian cancer.

Inherited risk

The risk of ovarian cancer is increased in women who have inherited certain changes in the BRCA1, BRCA2, or other genes.

The risk of ovarian cancer is also increased in women who have certain inherited syndromes that include:

  • Familial site-specific ovarian cancer syndrome.
  • Familial breast/ovarian cancer syndrome.
  • Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC; Lynch syndrome).

Hormone replacement therapy

There is a slightly increased risk of ovarian cancer in women who are taking hormone replacement therapy (HRT) after menopause. There is also an increased risk of ovarian cancer in women who have recently used HRT, even if they used it for less than 5 years. The risk of ovarian cancer is the same for HRT with estrogen only or with combined estrogen and progestin. When HRT is stopped, the risk of ovarian cancer decreases over time. The risk of ovarian cancer is not affected by the age of the woman when taking HRT.

Weight and height

Being overweight or obese during the teenage years is linked to an increased risk of ovarian cancer. Being obese is linked to an increased risk of death from ovarian cancer. Being tall (5’8″ or taller) may also be linked to a slight increase in the risk of ovarian cancer.


Women who have endometriosis have an increased risk of ovarian cancer.

What are protective factors for ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancer?

The following are protective factors for ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancer:

Oral contraceptives

Taking oral contraceptives (“the pill”) lowers the risk of ovarian cancer. The longer oral contraceptives are used, the lower the risk may be. The decrease in risk may last up to 30 years after a woman has stopped taking oral contraceptives.

Taking oral contraceptives increases the risk of blood clots. This risk is higher in women who also smoke.

Tubal ligation
The risk of ovarian cancer is decreased in women who have a tubal ligation (surgery to close both fallopian tubes).

Giving birth
Women who have given birth have a decreased risk of ovarian cancer compared to women who have not given birth. Giving birth to more than one child further decreases the risk of ovarian cancer.

Some studies have shown that salpingectomy (surgery to remove one or both fallopian tubes) is linked with a decreased risk of ovarian cancer. When both fallopian tubes are removed, the risk of ovarian cancer is lowered more than when one fallopian tube is removed.

Breastfeeding is linked to a decreased risk of ovarian cancer. The longer a woman breastfeeds, the lower her risk of ovarian cancer. Women who breastfeed for at least 8 to 10 months have the greatest decrease in risk of ovarian cancer.

Risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy

Some women who have a high risk of ovarian cancer may choose to have a risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (surgery to remove the fallopian tubes and ovaries when there are no signs of cancer). This includes women who have inherited certain changes in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes or have an inherited syndrome. (See the Risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy section in the PDQ health professional summary on Genetics of Breast and Gynecologic Cancers for more information.)

It is very important to have a cancer risk assessment and counseling before making this decision. These and other factors may be discussed:

  • Infertility.
  • Early menopause: The drop in estrogen levels caused by removing the ovaries can cause early menopause. Symptoms of menopause include the following:
    • Hot flashes.
    • Night sweats.
    • Trouble sleeping.
    • Mood changes.
    • Decreased sex drive.
    • Heart disease.
    • Vaginal dryness.
    • Frequent urination.
    • Osteoporosis (decreased bone density).

These symptoms may not be the same in all women. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) may be used to lessen these symptoms.

  • Risk of ovarian cancer in the peritoneum: Women who have had a risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy continue to have a small risk of ovarian cancer in the peritoneum (thin layer of tissue that lines the inside of the abdomen). This is rare, but may occur if ovarian cancer cells had already spread to the peritoneum before the surgery or if some ovarian tissue remains after surgery.

Unclear affect the risk of Ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancer

It is not clear whether the following affect the risk of ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancer:

  • Diet
    • Studies of dietary factors have not found a strong link to ovarian cancer.
  • Alcohol
    • Studies have not shown a link between drinking alcohol and the risk of ovarian cancer.
  • Aspirin and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
    • Some studies of aspirin and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have found a decreased risk of ovarian cancer and others have not.
  • Talcum powder (Talc)
    • Studies of women who used talcum powder (talc) dusted on the perineum (the area between the vagina and the anus) have not found clear evidence of an increased risk of ovarian cancer.
  • Infertility treatment
    • Overall, studies in women using fertility drugs have not found clear evidence of an increased risk of ovarian cancer. The risk of invasive ovarian cancer may be higher in women who do not get pregnant after taking fertility drugs.

Cancer prevention clinical trials are used to study ways to prevent cancer.

Cancer prevention clinical trials are used to study ways to lower the risk of developing certain types of cancer. Some cancer prevention trials are conducted with healthy people who have not had cancer but who have an increased risk for cancer. Other prevention trials are conducted with people who have had cancer and are trying to prevent another cancer of the same type or to lower their chance of developing a new type of cancer. Other trials are done with healthy volunteers who are not known to have any risk factors for cancer.

The purpose of some cancer prevention clinical trials is to find out whether actions people take can prevent cancer. These may include eating fruits and vegetables, exercising, quitting smoking, or taking certain medicines, vitamins, minerals, or food supplements.

New ways to prevent ovarian, fallopian tube and primary peritoneal cancer are being studied in clinical trials.

You can place your order for all your cancer and diabetes medications with us at very moderate prices.All our prices have been subsidized thus our prices are very low as compared with others. Contact us.


​ What are ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancer?

What are ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancer?


Ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancers are diseases in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the ovaries, fallopian tubes, or peritoneum.
Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death from cancer of the female reproductive system.

You can place your order for all your cancer and diabetes medications with us at very moderate prices.All our prices have been subsidized thus our prices are very low as compared to others. Contact us.

Ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancers are diseases in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the ovaries, fallopian tubes, or peritoneum.

The ovaries are a pair of organs in the female reproductive system. They are in the pelvis, one on each side of the uterus (the hollow, pear-shaped organ where a fetus grows). Each ovary is about the size and shape of an almond. The ovaries make eggs and female hormones (chemicals that control the way certain cells or organs work in the body).

The fallopian tubes are a pair of long, slender tubes, one on each side of the uterus. Eggs pass from the ovaries, through the fallopian tubes, to the uterus. Cancer sometimes begins at the end of the fallopian tube near the ovary and spreads to the ovary.

The peritoneum is the tissue that lines the abdominal wall and covers organs in the abdomen. Primary peritoneal cancer is cancer that forms in the peritoneum and has not spread there from another part of the body. Cancer sometimes begins in the peritoneum and spreads to the ovary.

Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death from cancer of the female reproductive system.

Ovarian cancer is most common in postmenopausal women. New cases of ovarian cancer and deaths from ovarian cancer are higher among white women than black women, but have decreased in both groups.

Women who have a family history of ovarian cancer and/or certain inherited gene changes, such as BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene changes, have a higher risk than women who do not have a family history or who have not inherited these gene changes. For women with inherited risk, genetic counseling and genetic testing can be used to find out more about how likely they are to develop ovarian cancer.

It is hard to find ovarian cancer early. Early ovarian cancer may not cause any symptoms. When symptoms do appear, ovarian cancer is often advanced.

Ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancer prevention

Key points of Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, and Primary Peritoneal cancer prevention are:

  • Avoiding risk factors and increasing protective factors may help prevent cancer.
  • The following are risk factors for ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancer:
    • Personal history of breast cancer
    • Family history of ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancer
    • Inherited risk
    • Hormone replacement therapy
    • Weight and height
    • Endometriosis
  • The following are protective factors for ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancer:
    • Oral contraceptives
    • Tubal ligation
    • Giving birth
    • Salpingectomy
    • Breastfeeding
    • Risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy
  • It is not clear whether the following affect the risk of ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancer:
    • Diet
    • Alcohol
    • Aspirin and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
    • Talc
    • Infertility treatment
    • Cancer prevention clinical trials are used to study ways to prevent cancer.
    • New ways to prevent ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancer are being studied in clinical trials.

Avoiding risk factors and increasing protective factors may help prevent cancer.

Avoiding cancer risk factors may help prevent certain cancers. Risk factors include smoking, being overweight, and not getting enough exercise. Increasing protective factors such as quitting smoking and exercising may also help prevent some cancers. Talk to your doctor or other health care professional about how you might lower your risk of cancer.

What is cancer prevention

What is cancer prevention

What is cancer prevention ? Cancer prevention is action taken to lower the chance of getting cancer. By preventing cancer, the number of new cases of cancer in a group or population is lowered. Hopefully, this will lower the number of deaths caused by cancer.

What is cancer prevention? To prevent new cancers from starting, scientists look at risk factors and protective factors. Anything that increases your chance of developing cancer is called a cancer risk factor; anything that decreases your chance of developing cancer is called a cancer protective factor.What is cancer prevention ?

You can place your order for all your cancer and diabetes medications with us at very moderate prices.All our prices have been subsidized thus our prices are very low as compared to others. Contact us.

Some risk factors for cancer can be avoided, but many cannot. For example, both smoking and inheriting certain genes are risk factors for some types of cancer, but only smoking can be avoided. Regular exercise and a healthy diet may be protective factors for some types of cancer.

Avoiding risk factors and increasing protective factors may lower your risk but it does not mean that you will not get cancer.

Different ways to prevent cancer are being studied, including:

Changing lifestyle or eating habits.
Avoiding things known to cause cancer.
Taking medicines to treat a precancerous condition or to keep cancer from starting.